Contribution of Scientists in Biology

These scientists and there works is most important for NEET EXAM

As you may know, that many scientists have donated their whole life to understand life, even today, we do not know them. First of all I will give them many many thank you for trying to understand what is  biology? And simplify Biology. 
It is not simple to understand at that time let's talk about Mandal he is a father of Genetics, Mendel called Factor-Factor and ended up explaining his entire life to the people.  Still people did not understand.  Discovered Life and Right to Simplified How did some scientist get his credit? but what did he gain from it, when he was alive! He did not get any credit during whole life, they sacrificed life's and precious time for others, then how we can forget him. 
Even today, many people are donating blood, kidney etc. and they are helping others. This is also part of the Sacrifice not only sacrifice it's Great Sacrifice. 

Today we will come to some scientist who is very important, in our NEET-UG Exam.

I have extracted all the Scientist name and there works from NCERT Biology Book which is given in Class-11, and Class-12 this is most important for NEET exam.


S.
N

Name of scientist

Year

Work 

1.  

Carolus Linnaeus

 

Binomial nomenclature

Other work

Artificial system of classification

2.  

R.H. Whittaker

1969

Five kingdom classification

3.  

D.J. Ivanovsky

1892

TMV Can through

bacterial filter

4.  

M.W. Beijerinck

1898

Contagium fluidum vivum

5.  

W.M. Stanley

1935

Crystallized viruses

6.  

T.O. Diener

1971

Discovered viroid causing potato spindle tuber disease

7.  

George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker

 

Natural system of classification

8.  

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

 

First saw and described live cell

9.  

Robert Brown

1831

Discovered nucleus

10.  

Matthias

Schleiden

(German Botanist)

1838

Observed that a plants are composed of different kinds of cells →tissue

11.  

Theodore

Schwann (British zoologist)

1839

Reported that all cells had plasma membrane but presence of cell was unique character of plant cell

12.  

Rudolf Virchow 

1855

“Omnis Cellula- e

Cellula”

13.  

Singer and Nicolson

1972

Fluid mosaic model

14.  

Camillo Golgi

1898

Observed densely stained Golgi bodies 

15.  

George Palade

1953

Observed ribosome as a densely stained structure

16.  

Fleming

 

Stained nucleus by basic dyes and named it as chromatin

17.

 

 

Julian Von Sachs

1860, 1854

Developed hydroponics (1860)

 

18.  

Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)

1770,

1774

Bell jar experiment (1770)

 

OTHER WORK

Discovered oxygen (1774) 

19.  

Jan Ingenhousz (1730-1799)

 

Bell jar experiment (in dark)

 

OTHER WORK

In bright light, oxygen bubbies are evolved around green parts

20.  

T.W. Engelmann (1843-1909)

 

Studied action spectra of photosynthesis. 

21.  

Cornelius van Nell (1897-1985)

 

His studies on green and purple Sulphur bacteria demonstrated that hydrogen from a suitable oxidizable donor reduces CO2 to sugar

22.  

Melvin Calvin

 

Calvin cycle

23.  

Hatch and Stack

 

HSK pathway or C4 Pathway

24.  

Blackman

1905

Law of limiting factor

25.  

Gustav Embden,

Otto Meyerhof, J.

Parnas

 

EMP pathway or glycolysis

26.  

Charles and

Francis Darwin

 

Canary grass phototropism

27.  

F.W. Went

 

Isolated auxin from oat coleoptile

28.  

E. Kurosawa

 

Reported appearance of disease in healthy plant after exposure to sterile nitrate of Gibberella fujikuroi

29.  

F. Skoog

 

Observed that from the intermodal segment of tobacco strength callus proliferated only in  addition to auxin the nutrient medium was supplemented with cytokinins

30.  

F. K. Skoog and Miller

 

Crystalized the cytokinins

31.  

Cousins

 

Conformed the released of a volatile substance from ripened orange hastened the ripening of unripened banana

32.  

Gregor John Mendel

1856-

1863

Mendelian inheritance laws

33.  

Reginald Punnett (British)

 

Punnett’s square

34.  

De Vries, Correns, Von Tschermak

1902

Rediscovering Mendel’s result on the inheritance of characters

INDEPENDENTLY

35.  

Walter Sutton,  Theodore Boveri

 

Sutton and Boveri

→ segregation of factors ↔ chromosomes

 

 

 

Sutton → chromosomal theory of inheritance

36.  

T.H. Morgan

 

Linkage

37.  

Alfred Sturtevant

 

Mapping of chromosomes

38.  

Landon Down

1866

Dawn’s syndrome

39.  

Friedrich Meischer

1869

Identified DNA present in nucleus as an acidic substance and named it as Nucleus

40.  

James Watson and Francis Crick

1953

Double helix model (B-DNA)

41.  

Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin

 

X-RAY diffraction study of DNA

42.  

Erwin Chargaff

 

A+G = T+C = 1

43.  

Frederick Griffith 

1928

Transforming principle (Griffith Effect).

44.  

Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod

and Maclyn McCarty

1933-44

Biochemical characterization of

Transforming principle

 

45.  

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

1952

Conformation of DNA as genetic material

(Transduction).

46.  

Francis Crick

 

Central Dogma

OTHER WORK

Postulated presence of adapter molecule that would on one hand read the code and other hand read the code and other hand bind to specific amino acid

47.  

Mathew Meselson,

Franklin Stahl

1958

Semi conservative nature of DNA replication with the help of heavy N15

48.  

Taylor

1958

Semi-conservation experiment on Vicia faba (beans) with the help of radioactive thymidine

49.  

George Gamow

(physicist)

 

For 20 amino acids

43 = 64 codons   

50.  

Har Gobind Khorana

 

Developed chemical method which was instrumental in synthesizing RNA with defined combinations of bases {homopolymers and Copolymers}

51.  

Marshall Nirenberg

 

Cell free system for protein synthesis

52.  

Francois Jacob, Jacque Monad

 

Elucidation of Lac operon

53.  

Frederick Sanger

 

Developed principle upon which automated DNA sequencers work

OTHER WORK

Discovered method for determination of amino acid sequence in proteins

54.  

Alec Jeffrey

 

Developed DNA

Fingerprinting

55.

Louis Pasteur

 

Final blow to abiogenesis

OTHER WORK

Name → virus, rabies vaccine

56.  

Oparin (Russia), Haldane (England)

 

First abiogenesis and then biogenesis for ever

57.  

S.L. Miller (American)

1953

Stanley – Miller experiment

58.  

Alfred Wallace

 

Reached same conclusion as that of Darwin

59.  

Ernst Haeckel

 

Ontogeny

recapitulates phylogeny

60.  

Karl Ernst von Baer

 

Disproved above assertion

61.  

Thomas Malthus

 

Populations assay

62.  

Hugo de Vries

 

Mutation theory of Evolution

63.  

Hardy Weinberg

 

Hardy Weinberg equilibrium 

64.  

Verghese Kurien

 

Father of white revolution in India

65.  

M.S. Swaminathan

 

Father of green revolution in India

66.  

Norman E. Borlaug

 

Developed semi dwarf variety of wheat

67.  

Alexander Fleming

NOBEL

PRIZE

(1945)

Observed Ammensalism between

Staphylococci and

Penicilium notatum

68.  

Ernest Chain and Howard Florey

 

Explored effectiveness of Penicillin as antibiotics.

69.  

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer

1972

Construction of first recombinant DNA

70.  

Georgy Gause

 

Gause’s competitive exclusion principle (on Paramecium).

71.  

Connell

 

Donnell’s elegant field experiment (on Barnacles)

72.  

Mac Arthur

 

Coexistence of 5 closely related species of warblers

73.  

Lindemann

1942

Lindemann’s law of 10% energy transfer 

74.

Robert Constanza

 

 

Price rag over ecosystem services

 

75.  

Edward Wilson (Biologist)

 

Coined term biodiversity

76.  

Robert May

 

Estimated global Biodiversity

77.  

Alexander Von

Humboldt

(German

Naturalist)

 

Species area relationship 

78.  

David Tilman

 

David Tilman’s long term experiment (Species diversity is inversely proportional to year to year variation in total biomass).

79.  

Paul Ehrlich (Standford ecologist)

 

Rivet popper hypothesis.

OTHER WORK

Key species concept in ecosystem.

 


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